Profiling the Tumor Microenvironment
A Glimpse of the Disease Panorama from the Tumor Microenvironment
Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a multifaceted ecosystem with profound cellular heterogeneity, dynamics, and complex intercellular crosstalk. Although the acquisition of oncogene function and the loss of anti-oncogene function are the driving forces of tumorigenesis and development, TME, including extracellular matrix, peripheral matrix, signal molecules, infiltrating immune cells and other cell groups, is also considered to be the key to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, factors involved in the interaction of TME may provide new targets for diagnostic development and therapeutic intervention. Creative Biolabs offers fit-for-purpose single cell omics solutions to assist our clients to profile the tumor microenvironment.
Single-Cell Omics Profiling of the TME
Single cell is the ultimate unit of life activities. Its genetic mechanism and cellular environment interact to form the formation and function of complex structures such as tissues and organs. Anatomical composition and description of interactions, dynamics, and functions at single-cell resolution are essential to fully understand the biology of almost all life phenomena under normal and disease conditions. Cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled proliferation and invasive somatic mutations, which can especially benefit from advances in single-cell analysis. In the process of tumorigenesis, different genetic heterogeneous cancer cell populations are generated, evolved and interact with cells in the TME, leading to host metabolic hijacking, immune escape, transfer to other body parts, and ultimately death.
Fig.1 Constituents of the tumor microenvironment. (Hanash, 2014)
The application of single-cell sequencing, consistent with the existing genomics methods, has achieved high-resolution queries of genome, transcriptome, epigenome, and proteome. When applied to cancer, these single-cell multigroup methods bypass the limitation of data resolution in the past, enabling us to understand the evolutionary dynamics of cancer progression, immune evasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance in more detail. This information is very valuable for predicting the targeting mechanism of cancer immune therapy resistance. It is a revolutionary cancer treatment method, which uses the immune system to combat a variety of cancer types, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer.
Single Cell has the ability to provide comprehensive single-cell omics analysis, paving the way for the analysis of TME.
- Single-Cell Genomic Analysis
Genomics through genome-wide sequencing promotes understanding of heterogeneity among tumors, especially within tumors.
- Single-Cell Transcriptomics Analysis
Transcriptionomics using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology can reconstruct high-resolution maps of TME in different cancer types.
- Single-Cell Proteomes Analysis
Proteomics by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry allows each sample to analyze up to 50 proteins in tens of thousands of cells, which can better understand the cellular state in cancer ecosystems.
- Single-Cell Epigenome Analysis
Epigenome, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, can characterize the heterogeneity, plasticity and functional diversity of the immune system.
Fig.2 Overview of the single-cell approach for multi-omics profiling of the TME. (Finotello, 2018)
Thanks to the scientific insights gained from the latest advances in Immuno-oncology, as well as the continuous development of single-cell omics technology, TME research has also been promoted. With advances in techniques such as high-throughput single-cell sequencing, we can now query the genomes of malignant cells and immune cells in TME at high resolution, as well as other features, in order to better understand what facilitates the escape of growth inhibition and cell death signals.
Single Cell provides insights at various stages of disease research
- A powerful genomic approach to TME analysis for research and diagnosis needs
- Providing accurate representation of TME at cellular, molecular and biochemical levels
- Requires low sample input, high-throughput and robust workflow, shorter analysis time and larger data sets to query
- Can be customized to meet the needs of cancer immunotherapy projects
- Continuous updates, including new insights into the basis and transformation of cancer immunotherapy
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- Hanash, S.; Schliekelman, M. Proteomic profiling of the tumor microenvironment: recent insights and the search for biomarkers. Genome medicine. 2014, 6(2): 12.
- Finotello, F.; Eduati, F. Multi-omics profiling of the tumor microenvironment: paving the way to precision Immuno-oncology. Frontiers in oncology. 2018, 8.